Monday, February 26, 2007

CIA crimes in Latin America

automatically translated from spanish from


Coup d'etat in Chile, 11 of September of 1973

11 of September (Chile)

The Air Force bombs the Currency

The 11 of September of 1973 the Chilean Army Beyond aborted with criminal
force the socialist experience of the government of the Popular Unit
headed by the Rescuing president, which implied its death and the one of
thousands of Chileans.

This coup d'etat would mean an unpublished experience and the dark prelude
of which until today it would continue making the United States in the
rest of Latin America.

Next, a brief route by the thousand days of socialist government in Chile
and the events related to the coup d'etat of the 11 of September.

Popular unit for a Popular Government

It was the central slogan and the basic imperative that united and
mobilized to all the sectors of left and progressives in year 69 in Chile.
An ample cultural movement added to the campaign contributing creativity
and enthusiasm. The muralistas brigades arose therefore, of theater, song
and the most varied expressions of the art that participated actively in
the campaign.

Youth, mainly assumed an outpost position. As it said Beyond: "To be young
and to be revolutionary it is not until an almost biological

The elaboration of the program of government of the Popular Unit was
shaped in the plan of the forty measures.

The 22 of January of 1970, the Popular Unit proclaimed Beyond like unique
candidate to the presidency to Salvador. All along and the forces were
dedicated to the campaign: meetings, meetings, exits marry according to
house, preparation of linen cloths and paintings; it was a permanent task,
that grew in intensity as it approached the 4 of September of that year,
day of the elections.

In order to close the campaign in Santiago a great concentration was made
in the Tree-lined avenue (Reconciled main), with great marches that
converged from the four cardinal points.

The Tree-lined avenue was practically a human sea, from Italy Seat to
Central station and also the bordering streets, until it arrived the night
from the 4 of September of 1970 and gained the Chicho.

The first facist attempt to stop the assumption of Beyond a the government
was the murder of General René Schneider, until that moment Army
Commander-in-Chief, a day before its majority in the Congress was decided.
It was executed by a commando rightist who directed general Roberto Viaux
and induced by the North Americans.

The 22 of October, day of the voting in the Congress, was tense. Vote to
vote of the parliamentarians went clarifying the ratification of the
elections of the 4 of September.

The results were 153 in favor of Salvador Beyond, 35 against and 7
abstentions. The town celebrated it with joy in all the country.

Salvador Beyond is the first Marxist president in the history of the
humanity that arrives at the government by the own institutional rules of
the bourgeois system.

The Popular Government

And the history on the unpublished attempt began, to advance in the
construction of the Socialism by the route nonarmed. The diplomatic
relations with all the socialist countries were started again. Special
meaning had the reestablishment of the relations with Cuba, which helped
to run unjust the blockade imposed to the island by EE.UU.

The Agrarian Reformation was deepened, with the earth expropriation. The
Popular Government ended the large estate in 1972 and the nationalization
of the copper began that culminated with the favorable voting in the
Congress, even of the parties of the Right, which as well, indicated
enough of that historical vindication.

The creation of the call began area of social property of the economy,
with the expropriation, or rather, the purchase on the part of the state
of the 100 main companies. Also the deprived Bank was nationalized,
strikeing a hard blow to the financial oligarchy. This set of structural
measures, revolutionized to the country.

The reaction was brutal: a blockade economic international on the part of
EE.UU with the freezing of the sales of copper in the outside began,
whereas in Chile, the reaction implemented the internal sabotage, the
merchandise monopolizing, insumos and spare parts. The campaigns of loss
of prestige press, the calls and pressures of the right and the empire to
the Armed Forces (FF.AA.) so that they aimed a coup d'etat, were every day
of greater intensity.

In the parliamentary elections of March of 1973, the UP obtained 45% of
the votes. The shed urdido during the electoral campaign by the opposition
of right DC-PN sank that it tried to obtain both third in the cameras to
decree the ilegitimidad of the Government of Beyond.

They did not have left another option that to resort the military coup.
They made an attempt in June of the 73, the "Tanquetazo" that failed. But
it was a demonstration of a what was arranged and also of the incapacity
to resist a blow without having arms to defend the Popular Government.

The putsch coup participant would be the incentive to continue with the
subversion, the terror and all type of destabilizing maneuvers.

The 29 of July assassinated to the aide-de-camp of Beyond, Araya commander
Peters, simultaneously that followed the pressures against the loyal
uniformed ones the Government.

The women of some officials, in union to the rightists, carried out a
manifestation against Carlos Prats, Army Commander-in-Chief, obtaining
that he himself resigned to his position, naming in their place to Augusto
Pinochet, who assumes the 22 of August.

The Congress, with majority demo-rightist, approved a vote that raised the
unconstitutionality of the Popular Government; it granted to the coup
participants the legitimacy to him for the coup d'etat.

The last manifestation of masses of the UP was made the 4 of September of
1973, when being fulfilled three years of the electoral triumph. It was
one massive demonstration of endorsement of the popular sectors with more
of a million demonstrators. Diverse columns of workers, students and town
in general in front of marched the Presidential Palace under the slogan
"To support, to support the popular Government". The right and the DC
diminished that manifestation and followed with more force their campaign
of destabilization of the Popular Government.

The 11 of September of 1973

The armored ones assaulted the streets of Santiago

In principle the blow was planned for 15 or 16 of September with the
purpose of camouflaging its preparation with the mobilization of troops of
the traditional military parade of the 19 of September, although later it
was anticipated for day 11. The reaction could not allow that Beyond it
sent the call to a national plebiscito to dissolve to the situation in the
Technical University day 11. For that reason the confabulados ones quickly
agreed to advance the accomplishment of the blow. The "Tanquetazo" had
served to them as experience for the definitive blow. It had to be fast
and bloody from the beginning. It was necessary to bomb the Currency if
they did not surrender before.

The blow began at daybreak, with the rise of the Navy. Soon an
uncontrollable vortex of nigh raids of the Army was triggered in all the
territory and all the directions, the Navy, Aviation and also Customs
officers. They had everything planned to give an overwhelming and sudden
blow it.

There was space nor no time for the maneuver. UP could not be left it was
reorganized and defended. The plans of defense of the Popular Government
absolutely were exceeded.
[to publish]
Zarpazo Yankee of the blow

The order of the blow was issued by Richard M. Nixon, segundada by Henry
Kissinger. The preparation of the coup d'etat in Latin American Chile and
other countries was distributed from the School of the Américas instituted
in 1946 with Fort-Loving seat and transferred soon to Fort-Gullik in 1949
in the zone of the Panama Canal and from 1963 under the command of the
South commando of the Army of the United States.

By its classrooms they most of passed officials and sergeant majors of the
armies of the Latin American countries. It allowed to form ideologically
and militarily to more than 45,000 officials of 22 Latin American
countries, in special where the subversion was considered of first
magnitude, in individual Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and

Between its students they were the general coup participants Viola and
Videla (Argentina), Somoza (Nicaragua), Pinochet (Chile), Stroessner
(Paraguay), Banzer (Bolivia), Melgar Castro (Honduras), Carlos Humberto
Romero (El Salvador)

Chronology of the DAY 11 SEPTEMBER OF 1973

6:00 the boats of the Navy, that had weighed anchor the previous day to
participate in the Unitas Operation, return to Valparaiso. Naval strengths
occupy the streets of the port, Intendance and the plants of the Company
of Telephones of Viña and Valparaiso. In Santiago, the Commanding admiral
is stopped in his address.

6:30 an official of Customs officers of Valparaiso informs to the
presidential residence into Tomas Moor from the situation in the port. In
the Ministry of Defense already one is reunited all to High Command coup
participant presided over by Carvajal vice-admiral. General Pinochet has
settled in the school of Telecommunications of Peñalolen and general
Leigh, in the Academy military of the Fach in the Counts. The general
Mendoza, who has given his own blow in Customs officers, is in the
building of the institution in Amunategui street.

7:30 Accompanied by its personal guard, Beyond arrives at the Currency
that already is surrounded by the rebellious troops. In the following
minutes, numerous civil employees of government enter the Palace.

8:00 In his first speech by radio, Beyond informs to the country of the
rise that supposes restricted to the Navy in Valparaiso. Fifteen minutes
later the opposition radios transmit in chain the first proclamation of
the Armed Forces. Military cash destroy the National radio equipment and
smooth the radio of the Technical University. The transmitting towers of
radio Corporation and radio Vestibules are bombed.

9:00 After uselessly trying to communicate with the three
Commanders-in-Chief, Beyond knows clearly that all the Armed Forces are
coludidas in the blow and that have been beheaded the controls of those
arms whose heads kept fidelity to him. Then the first firings like product
of the confrontation between effective coup participants and snipers
installed in the buildings begin to feel public of the sector.

9:20 Beyond speaks for the last time through Magallanes Radio. With
touching words, in which it knows will be its last public speech, Beyond
one takes leave of the town that chose President.

10:00 the tanks begin to shoot intensely against the Currency from where
the defenders respond the fire, forcing to the attackers to fall back.
Beyond it rejects the draft notices of surrender of Carvajal and the offer
of his military aides-de-camp of an airplane to start off for exile. The
presidential guard of Customs officers leaves the Palace. Only the
Director of Customs officers, general Sepúlveda Galindo, remains until
minutes before the bombing.

11:00 At the request of the President, a group of women, between whom
their daughters count themselves, and some civil employees of government
leaves the Palace. In Adding, the Political Committee of the UP decides
not to resist: the workers will have to leave their centers of work and to
return to their homes.

12:00 Bombing of the Fach throws during fifteen minutes but of twenty
explosive pumps on the old building, the one that begins to burn by the
North wing, in front of the street Currency. In earth, the troops drop
tear pumps to the interior: the atmosphere becomes irrespirable. The
journalist Augusto Olivares commits suicide in one of the dependencies of
the Palace. Minutes later, the airplanes come to bomb the presidential
house of Tomas Moor. Confrontations in the Technical University, in
industries and populations throw dead tens of and hundreds of prisoners.
The embassies begin to fill of put in a home.

13:30 To the control of general Palacios, military cash enter the Currency
while one releases row of prisoners begins to leave the place. In the
second floor, after an intense shooting, President Allende dies with a
metralleta in his hands in the Hall Independence.

15:00 a new side of the conmina Military junta to 92 personeros of the
government and politicians of the UP to give itself in the term of one
hour in the Ministry of defense. Arsenio Pupin, Claudius Gimeno, Eduardo
Walls, Enrique the personal Orchard and all guards of Beyond, are
transferred to the Tacna regiment of where they disappear for always.

16,00 Firemen get to choke the fire of the Currency that single at dusk
managed to be extinguished. The body of Beyond, covered with a Bolivian
choapino, is retired by military cash and transferred to the Military

18.00 The touch begins of is in all the country. The prisoners of Santiago
begin to arrive at the National Stage and those of Conception are
transferred to Isla Quiriquina.

By this time, all the pockets of resistance have been squashed and the
Governing body controls all the national territory.


Charles Horman

American citizen of 31 years of age, stopped next to Frank Teruggi of 24
years, two days after the Coup d'etat of the 11 of September of 1973 by
the Chilean secret police and never returned of the interrogations.

A document that has the seal of top secret was found by the investigators
of the National Security Archive. It has been date of 25 of August of 1976
and in him one tells that Horman was kidnapped and taken to the National
Stage where they locked up to thousands of "suspects" to collaborate
Beyond with the democratic government of Salvador. Many of them were
assassinated under horrible tortures.

The Department of State knew that the regime of Pinochet killed Horman and
Teruggi but never said nothing to the families.

The document is signed by Rudy Fimbres, platoon leader of Chilean subjects
of the Department of State, and by other two North American diplomats:
R.S. Driscott and W.W. Robertson, and indicates, even, that the company it
gave information that contributed to motivate the murder.

"In worse of the cases, Intelligence it was to as much that Chile saw
Horman as a dangerous person and the North American authorities did not
make anything to prevent the logical result of the paranoia of the Chilean
government". Although in 1980 one inquired on the case, hid key history.

Source: Stella Calloni. Cóndor operation. Criminal pact. Editorial of
Social Sciences, Havana, 2006.

Frank Teruggi

American citizen of 24 years of age, stopped next to Charles Horman of 31
years, two days after the Coup d'etat of the 11 of September of 1973 by
the Chilean secret police and never returned of the interrogations.

A document that has the seal of top secret was found by the investigators
of the National Security Archive. It has been date of 25 of August of 1976
and in him one tells that Horman was kidnapped and taken to the National
Stage where they locked up to thousands of "suspects" to collaborate
Beyond with the democratic government of Salvador. Many of them were
assassinated under horrible tortures.

The Department of State knew that the regime of Pinochet killed Charles
Horman and Teruggi but never said nothing to the families.

The document is signed by Rudy Fimbres, platoon leader of Chilean subjects
of the Department of State, and by other two North American diplomats:
R.S. Driscott and W.W. Robertson, and indicates, even, that the company it
gave information that contributed to motivate the murder.

"In worse of the cases, Intelligence it was to as much that Chile saw
Horman as a dangerous person and the North American authorities did not
make anything to prevent the logical result of the paranoia of the Chilean
government". Although in 1980 one inquired on the case, hid key history.

Source: Stella Calloni. Cóndor operation. Criminal pact. Editorial of
Social Sciences, Havana, 2006.


Sergio Huidobro Justiniano

The 11 of September of 1973, was head of the Marines of the Chilean Army.
He was key in the final phase of the conspiracy coup participant. It was
born in 1921.

Huidobro had withdrawn in 1942 like naval cadet. In 1955, it made a Course
of Marines, in the "U.S. Marine Corps", in Quantico, Virginia, in the
United States. In 1956, he was commissioner in Washington. It made the
course of Commando and General Staff in Fort Bening, the United States. It
carried out visits to the Southern Command, Zone of the Panama Canal,
between years 1965 and 1968. Later, it attended the course of Naval
Instructor in Norfolk, Virginia. In 1970 it was promoted rear admiral.

The 9 of September of 1973, along with the head of Intelligence of the
Navy, the captain, Ariel González, gave to the letter signed by Jose
Toribio Merino, fixing the date of the coup d'etat. The letter indicated
the following thing: "9 of September of 1973. Gustavo and Augusto. Under
my word of honor, the 11 day H will be and hour, the 06.00. If you cannot
fulfill this phase, with the total of the forces that send Santiago, they
explain it to reverso. Admiral Huidobro is authorized to treat and to
discuss any subject with you. He greets with hope and understanding to
them, Merino". To reverso of the leaf, he added myself: "To Gustavo: it is
the last opportunity. J.T.". And more down: "Augusto: if you do not put
all the force in Santiago from the first moment, we will not live for the
future. Pepe". Leigh signed, soon Pinochet printed its company/signature
and die of the Command in Army commander.

He was a man of confidence of the vice-admiral Jose Toribio Merino.
Huidobro had a antiallendista position openly.

In the Secret Interference, the author talks about Huidobro of the
following form: "… And it was that night of Saturday 8 of August when it
happened a key episode, of that mark the course of history from two human
beings who agree to say a lie. Huidobro decided, then, an audacious
movement. It made come from the capital, with urgent character, to the
captain Ariel González, head of Intelligence of the General Staff of the

Very behind schedule at night they already urdieron the lie for the
dominical meeting of the admirals. Yes, they would say to them that both
had gone that night to a meeting in Santiago, in which the Army and the
Air Force had decided that the blow would be Tuesday 11, to six in the
morning. That simple. Like two children who invent a history to obtain
something of their parents. Only that in this case, was no puerilidad.
They were two adults who lay to gatillar an action armed of serious

And the meeting arrived. The admirals listened to the report of Huidobro.
One of them, asked Merino if it had participated in the conversations.
Merino watched Huidobro and this, without at least ruborizar itself, it
requested authorization to make enter the room to the captain, Ariel
González. Nobody dared to doubt the word of the head of Intelligence. Then
wine the question. Who would go to Santiago to complete the agreement by
the part of the Navy? Powers to admiral Huidobro occurred him to plenary
sessions. Carvajal vice-admiral already had itself displaced to Santiago
to meet with the other heads of the Armed Forces that participated in the
plot coup participant.

She was commander-in-chief of the Marine infantry until 1976. That year
happened to retirement.

In 1977, ambassador of Chile in Beijing was designated.


Winston Cabello

Chilean economist (1955-1973).

He was Regional Director of Planning in Copiapó (Region of Atacama, center
of Chile) during the government of the Popular Unit. The day after the
military coup, dependent public were mentioned next to other chiefs of the
rear of the government of Salvador Beyond, to the office of the commander
Oscar Haag, head of zone of State of siege. It was left prisoner in the
local jail, because supposedly, its vehicle had been used with "suspicious

Positions were never formulated to him nor was put under an Advice
military, even, the judge advocate Carlos Brito assured to him that it
would leave in freedom.

The 16 of October of 1973, arrived the Caravan of general Arellano at
Copiapó. This it selected to 16 prisoners for his execution. Thirteen of
them, including a Hair, were removed from the jail that night and
massacreed by members of the retinue and some officials of the regiment.
The other three were assassinated on the following day.

The official version was that they had died in an attempt of flight. The
13 were buried in a grave without mark in the cemetery of Copiapó, and
they were not discovered until 1990.

Most of her family emigrated to California, the United States, but her
Zita sister never forgot the secret a friend the night before leaving
Chile, the 11 of December of 1974:

"Before going to us, a friend who worked in Cepal invited to me to have
supper to her house. In a while in which we were solo, she asked to me, `
Sabes how died your brother? It killed it Arming Fernandez Larios with a
pothook'. It described the way to me in which my brother had died. I did
not want to know, was very terrible. I did not tell it to anybody, did not
have sense to increase the pain. But never I forgot the name Arming
Fernandez Larios."

It was not but until 1995 when Zita Hair found out that the assassin of
his brother lived in the United States. As of that moment she (at this
point economist and professor of Latin American Studies in the University
of California, with host Santa Cruz) dedicated herself to investigate to
Arming Fernandez Larios.

By the end of 1998, Zita gave a document of 15 pages containing antecedent
on Fernandez Larios to the organization for Center Justice &
Accountability (CJA), in San Francisco, California, that, among other
things, sponsors civil demands against rapists to the resident human
rights, of step or with goods in the United States. Soon, one went to the
greater writing desk of lawyers of California and ad convinced it to take
the case honorem.

The 15 of March of 2004 a panel of three judges of a Circuit of Appeals of
Atlanta ratified the failure of Federal the Distrital Court of Miami
(October of the 2003), that condemned to ex- Chilean military man Armando
Fernandez Larios to pay to four million dollars to the family of the
engineer Winston Cabello.

On the matter the family declared: "The money does not have sense for us,
but it is the only legal possibility that it gives EE.UU to look for
justice us. This it is a moral judgment and politician. Before, Fernandez
Larios lived calmly. Now he will have the punishment to worry all the life
about not having money, because they are going away it to clear. It is
important to seat this precedent, so that the future generations know that
the crimes will not be unpunished".

Note elaborated with information of the site Alive Memory



Red Christmas operation

By the end of 1981, the counterrevolution initiated plans of remarkable
spread to prove its forces. One of first was the denominated operation
"Red Christmas", that consisted of the mobilization forced of the border
Misquito communities in the Department of North Zelaya towards Honduras,
simultaneously that was assassinated to which they did not accept the
migration, operative that had to culminate with the assault by
contrarrevolucionarias forces to Port Heads, the departmental capital. The
idea consisted, in addition to the damage caused when uprooting to the
settlers of its places of residence, intimidating them with religious
prejudices and to mount an advertising show that showed the "sandinista
persecutions" like cause of the caused exodus.

Similar situations happened in the regions of Seven Bank 1 and 2 and in
Walpasiksa, zones of establishment of the same ethnic groups.

Source: Escalante, Fabian, the Secret War: Calipso operation, Editorial of
Social Sciences, Havana, 2005

Operation 40


The 17 of March of 1960, the President of the United States, Dwight
Eisenhower, signed the Memorando de Seguridad Nacional that authorized the
outbreak of Operation 40.

The general lineamientos of this operation included/understood:

• Crear and to unify the opposition of the Cuban Revolution.

• Promover campaigns of propaganda of subversive transmitters to urge the
town to the rebellion.

• Estimular the creation of an only clandestine organization for the
accomplishment of intelligence tasks, subversion and terrorism, in
correspondence with the interests of the opposition in exile.

• The development of paramilitary and terrorist operations in the
countryside, on the base of the creation of a guerrilla army that would
act of set with the contrarrevolucionarias organizations of the urban

In August of 1960 the organization of a armed expedition was decided that
of independent form was in capacity to occupy the Island and to destroy
the revolutionary power.

Agents of the company infiltrated in the Island to create new
organizativas structures that served like fifth column when the aggression
prepared in the outside took place. In October of 1960 the revolutionary
forces eliminated important actions of the company and the internal
counterrevolution in which the countryside carried out a scene key.


In January of 1961, like part of Operation 40, the company it conformed a
unit of denominated commandos Team Gray (gray equipment) who were due to
infiltrate in the Island to conduct specialized operations in war of
guerrillas, intelligence, psychological war, explosives and
communications. Several weeks began to infiltrate later by different
places from the Cuban territory, but almost all were detected and captured
by the revolutionary forces.

Parallel to the disembarkation of Invading Brigade 2506 by the Playa
coasts Girón, (Bay of Pigs), the company had planned an operation
classified in the upper secret one, a contingent of 160 men, trained in a
base of the company in Carolina of the South, that would attack the
Eastern town of Baracoa to produce a diversionary action when the
mercenarias forces disembarked.

With the defeat of the bands of cash settlements in the mountainous zones
of Cuba, those that had been supported and supplied with arms, the
ammunition and foods by the United States with the purpose of creating an
army that could participate in the overthrow of the Cuban Revolution,
eliminated the fifth column armed of the counterrevolution in level and
mountains of the Villas, that had been designed by the company according
to the concepts of Operation 40.

Mission, action and members

Operation 40 had like main mission to be the repressive corps of the
Brigade of assault 2506 once the disembarkation had consolidated positions
in Cuban territory subsequent to.

It was created to stop the main leaders of the Revolution to occupy the
main organisms of the central administration of the state, in special the
military institutions, key economic centers, and to seize of the archives
of the Cuban security. The men of Operation 40 could not step on Cuban
earth. When seeing as the invaders of the assault brigade were lowered in
Playa sands Girón, they modified the plan of disembarkation of the unit by
retirement to Florida.

The members of Operation 40 also acted like intermediaries between the
station of the company with seat in Florida, well-known like JM-WAVE and
the terrorist groups of Cuban origin with which the company it was not
interested in maintaining direct bondings, participated in the traffic of
arms coming from Scythes and New Orleans. Of this form, the terrorists
were supplied of money, arms, equipment and received instructions for the
accomplishment of the missions planned by the JM-WAVE headquarters.

In these actions it could not lack the connection with the North American
Mafia, extremely interested in recovering his lost paradise in Havana with
the coming of the Revolution. The main members of Operation 40, directed
by Joaquin Sanjenis, one of the heads of the police in the government of
ex- president Carlos Prío Socarrás and trained by FBI, came from the
repressive bodies of the tyranny of Fulgencio Batista and had been
collaborating of FBI or the company before the triumph of the Revolution.

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